June 20, 2022
Injection molding machines are usually composed of injection systems, mold clamping systems, hydraulic transmission systems, electrical control systems, lubrication systems, heating and cooling systems, and safety monitoring systems.
The role of the injection system: the injection system is one of the most important components of the injection molding machine. Generally, there are three main forms: plunger type, screw type, and screw pre-plastic plunger injection type. The most widely used is the screw type. Its function is that in a cycle of the injection molding machine, after a certain amount of plastic can be heated and plasticized within a specified time, the molten plastic can be injected into the mold cavity through a screw under a certain pressure and speed. After the injection is completed, the shape of the molten material injected into the mold cavity is maintained.
Composition of the injection system: The injection system consists of a plasticizing device and a power transmission device.
The plasticizing device of the screw injection molding machine is mainly composed of a feeding device, a barrel, a screw, a glue-passing component, and a nozzle. The power transmission device includes the injection cylinder, the injection seat moving cylinder and the screw drive device (melting motor).
The function of the clamping system: the function of the clamping system is to ensure that the mold is closed, opened and ejected. At the same time, after the mold is closed, the mold is supplied with sufficient clamping force to resist the cavity pressure generated by the molten plastic entering the mold cavity, so as to prevent the mold from opening and causing the bad status of the product.
The composition of the clamping system: the clamping system is mainly composed of a clamping device, a machine twist, a mold adjustment mechanism, an ejection mechanism, a front and rear fixed template, a moving template, a clamping cylinder and a safety protection mechanism.
The function of the hydraulic transmission system is to provide power for the injection molding machine according to various actions required by the process, and to meet the requirements of pressure, speed, temperature, etc. required by each part of the injection molding machine. It is mainly composed of various hydraulic components and hydraulic auxiliary components, among which the oil pump and the motor are the power source of the injection molding machine. Various valves control oil pressure and flow to meet the requirements of the injection molding process.
The electrical control system and the hydraulic system cooperate reasonably, which can realize the process requirements (pressure, temperature, speed, time) and various program actions of the injection machine. It is mainly composed of electrical appliances, electronic components, instruments (as shown in "Instrument" in the figure, heaters, sensors, etc. There are generally four control methods, manual, semi-automatic, fully automatic, and adjustment.
The heating system is used to heat the barrel and the injection nozzle. The barrel of the injection molding machine generally uses an electric heating ring as a heating device, which is installed outside the barrel and is detected by thermocouples in sections. Heat conduction through the cylinder wall provides heat source for material plasticization; the cooling system is mainly used to cool the oil temperature. Too high oil temperature will cause various failures, so the oil temperature must be controlled. Another location that needs to be cooled is near the feeding port of the feeding tube to prevent the raw material from melting at the feeding port, causing the raw material to not be fed normally.
The lubrication system is a circuit that provides lubrication conditions for the relative moving parts of the moving template, mold adjustment device, connecting rod machine hinge, and shooting table of the injection molding machine, so as to reduce energy consumption and improve the life of parts. The lubrication can be regular manual lubrication. Automatic electric lubrication is also possible.
The safety device of the injection molding machine is mainly used to protect the safety of people and machines. It is mainly composed of safety door, safety baffle, hydraulic valve, limit switch, photoelectric detection element, etc., to realize electrical-mechanical-hydraulic interlock protection.
The monitoring system mainly monitors the oil temperature, material temperature, system overload, and process and equipment failures of the injection molding machine, and indicates or alarms when abnormal conditions are found.
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